Jews were expelled in 1492! Ironically, January 2nd 2013 will be the 521st anniversary of the submission of the great city of Granada. Boabdil surrendered it to the Catholic Monarchs, Fernando and Isabel. The 400 years exile by the way was followed soon after the end of the Moorish rule. The commendable cohabitation and the spirit of cosmopolitanism between Jews and Muslim in Spain was a far cry from the short-sightedness of today's Muslims and Jews, along with their bird minded egocentric leaderships.
(My reply in response to Greens article in Haaretz today: This day in Jewish history / Expulsion from Aragon)
On this day in 1424, Jews were officially denied the right to live in Barcelona, anticipating the expulsion from Spain in 1492 and the subsequent 400 year exile. I hope this can also be read as a part of the chronological events with finale of the pogrom guaranteed at 'The Battle of Granada' a siege of the city of Granada fought over a period of months leading up to its capitulation on January 2, 1492.
To this day one of the two great traditions of Judaism still remembers Cordoba with the nostalgia and longing that persisted over the centuries for it was during the Jewish golden age of Spain (under Muslim rule) that their greatest philosopher, Maimonides, composed his acclaimed commentaries.
The most important reason for the fragmentation of the Maghrib-and the loss of Andalus-was the loss of legality of rule. Legality is a central issue that has troubled Islamic history since the assassinations of Caliph Uthman and Ali. The Andalusia was far more secular, the result of their cosmopolitan culture wherein Muslims, Christians and Jews all participated. The settlers were inclined to look upon politics as disconnected from its moral basis. This rendition on the right by Padilla is an exaggeration, Boabdil met with the commanders in the dead of the night inside the Alhambra palace in order to evade the abrupt revolt of his people, who preferred death to surrender.
As the king rode away from his city, a tear came to his eye. His mother reportedly told him to "Thou dost weep like a woman for what thou couldst not defend as a man.''
With the comparatively little Muslim inhabitants now notionally under their rule, Fernando and Isabel could turn her devout ardour against the Jews, whom she debarred from her kingdom by royal edict later in 1492. With the "reconquest" of the Iberian peninsula absolute, Fernando and Isabel could ultimately dedicate funds to granting the wishes of that daft Genoan sailor who wanted to be the Admiral of the Ocean. Discovery of America followed soon.
Ferdinand and Isabella's and Segovian Dominican Tomás de Torquemada - In 1469, at the behest of the Pope, Isabella of Aragon married Ferdinand of Castile and the Spanish state was born. The Spanish Inquisition was an institution that had precedents in other Inquisitions. The reconquest of Spain from the Moors led to violent anti-Judaism* and Jews converted en masse to the Catholic faith.
The Spanish Inquisition was stirred in part by the multi-religious nature of Spanish society following the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors (Muslims). Much of the Iberian Peninsula was dominated by Moors following their invasion of the peninsula in 711 until they were expelled by means of a long campaign of reconquest. However, the reconquest did not result in the full expulsion of Muslims from Spain until the fall of Granada much later, but instead yielded a multi-religious society made up of Catholics, Jews and Muslims. Granada to the south, in particular remained under Moorish control until 1492, and large cities, especially Seville, Valladolid, and Barcelona , had large Jewish populations centered in Juderías. To this day one of the two great traditions of Judaism still remembers Cordoba with the nostalgia and longing that persisted over the centuries for it was during the Jewish golden age of Spain (under Muslim rule) that their greatest philosopher, Maimonides, composed his acclaimed commentaries.
Córdoba's old Jewish quarter (Juderia in Spanish) consists of a fascinating network of narrow lanes, more atmospheric and less commercialized than in Seville.
The Jews were established in Cordoba in Roman and Visigothic times. Under Arab rule after the 8th century, Jewish life and intellectualism flourished.
Hasfai Ibn Shaprut, a Jewish doctor, diplomat and scholar served under the Moorish rulers and attracted intellectuals to the court. His family's subsequent wealth and power were major factors in the wealthy and vibrant Jewish community of Cordoba at that time.
Maimonides, the most famous Jewish philosopher and author of the Mishneh Torah, was born in Cordoba in 1125. A statue to his honor stands in Tiberiadus Square in the Juderia.
The entrance gate, La Puerta de Almodavar, has a statue of Seneca and forms part of the western boundary of the Juderia. The Juderia reaches as far as Calle El Rey Heredia to the northeast and the Mosque to the south.
The main attraction of the Juderia is Cordoba's ancient synagogue, on Calle de los Judios (Street of the Jews).
Any belief that employs "guardians of truth'' on shaping of landscape of intellect will implode. It is said that 'Crutches of faith are introduced when reason sinks exhausted.' It is a paradox that when the curtain of dogma was descending within the Islamic lands killing free thinking it was slowly and steadily rising in Italy and northern Europe. The Islamic world was being eclipsed because of the internal philosophical challenges of orthodoxy and dogma was gaining.
The creativity and vitality of the golden cities were being sapped as uniformity stifled intellect so that by the time the overwhelming advances of the Mongols and the Inquisition happened the intellectual defences had already deserted Islam. When the Spanish began to reconquer their peninsula from centuries of Muslim rule, the Islamic kingdoms of Cordoba had descended to a few petty Islamic sultanates. In the great expulsion following the Reconquista the Camelot of Islam, and of Judaism and Christianity, was carefully ripped asunder; intellectually and physically bankrupted.The defeat of Granada was the beginning of one of the greatest Muslim tragedies. Their re-conquest of Spain was swift, they entered the magnificent palace of Alhambra in full glory and crosses were placed on the highest minarets. Abu Abdullah, the last king of Granada, and his family were exiled to the hills.
In 1469, Christian Spain had united with the marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. The monarchs decided to introduce the Inquisition to Castile to uncover and do away with false converts, and requested the Pope's assent. At first the request was turned down for a number of reasons. One reason was that they had requested the Spanish Inquisition to be under the control of the monarchs of Spain. This in turn would lessen papal authority over the clergy involved and make methods difficult to keep in line with official papal rules of inquisition, and instead easily become a mere political and semi-military tool of Spain. Ferdinand pressured Sixtus IV by threatening to withdraw militarily support during a time when the Turks were a major threat to Rome. On November 1, 1478, Pope Sixtus IV published the bull Exigit Sinceras Devotionis Affectus, through which the Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. The bull also gave the monarchs exclusive authority to name the inquisitors.
On January 2, 1492 the city of Granada was conquered by the combined forces of Aragon and Castile from the armies of the Muslim Emirate of Granada. It was after a negotiated fall over a period of four months where Ameer waited for the help from Ottoman fleet that did not materialise. Granada was the last outpost of the Moorish forces and its fall brought an end to 780 years of Muslim control in Islamic Iberia. It also marked the final act in the Reconquista, the campaign by the medieval Christian states of Spain to drive out the Moorish invaders. Abul Hassan Ali, a capable, courageous and gallant emir, ruled Granada at the time, he might have left his imprint on Spanish history but his court was devastated by in-house intrigues so characteristic of the Islamic traditions. In 1482, Ferdinand attacked Alhama, a city located about twenty miles from the city of Granada.
Abu Abdullah was a figure of cowardice, and weakness, a fight between father and son left the forces of Granada weak and susceptible. If history serves any lessons, the militants across the Islamic world should take heed from the fall of the Muslim rule in Granada, Spain, in 1492. It provides a good example of the elimination of a system not keeping pace with the march of events of the period.
The Muslim rule over the bulk of Spain spanned over seven centuries (711-1492) The orthodox Muslims say that Granada collapsed because the Muslims there had deviated from their faith and had become corrupt and luxury loving; they were weakened by internecine struggle for power. That is correct but only partly. The real reason was that the whole of Europe had entered a new era. New ideas, new technologies and new political systems were beginning to herald the new age. Reformation had taken roots and the concept of nation state was fast developing. This new concept was supplanting the system of different, often warring, tribal lords and kings.
Ferdinand after destroying the territories around Granada, raised an army of 80,000 for a final attack on Granada. The inability of Ameer Abul Hasan of Granada to see clearly this new reality and adjust his response accordingly in his domain that was already suffering from a triangular strife for power between him, his brother and son, ensured the end of the Muslim rule of over seven centuries.
"Thou dost weep like a woman for what thou couldst not defend as a man."
The cross replaced the crescent in the once mighty Omayyad province of Andalus. The Jews had already been expelled in 1492. Moors used to chant Allah, Allah, Allah when they saw a stunning, transcendental, dance performance. Moors saw that performance not as a work of man, but as a manifestation of God. When the Moors invaded Spain, they took this tradition with them, and this chanting of Allah, Allah, Allah changed to Ole, Ole, Ole that is so synonymous with Spanish music today.
It was now the turn of the Muslims. They were given the option of either converting to Christianity or being banished to North Africa. A kingdom died and a new kingdom was born. The terms of capitulation assured autonomy of worship and the right to move abroad. But within six years, the agreement was forsaken and the Inquisition was let loose with all its ferocity upon the wretched population under the direction of the cruel Bishop Jimenez. Finally, in 1609, the last of the Muslims embarked on an old boat and set sail for Morocco. The shutter descended on Moorish Andalusia. Some drifted to America. The register of immigrants into America ships arriving from Seville contains the names of many Muslim men and women.