Do you ever wonder why it is so hard to spread Democracy to a Muslim country. Do you worry why reason does not work? Why Violence is so rampant?
Political Islam intimidation is an unswerving product of the thinkers failures and can only be resolved by an intellectual renaissance within Islam. 'The closing of the Muslim Mind' is a must read by every faithful!!
Bernard Lewis book "What Went Wrong" with Islamic countries did not answer the questions that were created in its label. There is a book, I will suggest that does explain what went wrong with Islam 'The closing of the Muslim Mind.' When we see this sick opposition to everything that is constructive, one thinks why every mind is so below par and prone to conspiracies. Malala heartbreaking episode has become the new centre piece of conspiracy, her contrast to Dr. Aafia/Drones attack is so convoluted that it reeks of cerebral deceitfulness. Anyone who talks of reason and rationalism is termed a 'Malala and a heretic and is subsequently killed!!'
The prevalent Wahabbi and Sunni Deobandi Islam has to listen to reason and rationalism. Do you ever think why everything is a conspiracy? You know why? The principal problem is that Pakistan and nation of Islam are predominantly Ash'arite not Mu'tazilite. Anti-intellectualism in Islam has become rampant, the reason people believe in conspiracies so much is because rationalism is in short supply. There will be no discipline or growth until the mainstream in Muslim countries are trained to reflect freely. 'When you cannot be a peacemaker, you need to use the sword.'
The Mu'tazilites wanted to adopt the synthesis of faith and reason that medieval philosophers accomplished within Christianity. They accepted the authority of the Qu'ran, the Mu'tazilites believed that the Islamic faith need to be subjected to logical analysis, Allah work need to conform to the demands of human reason. Ash'arites insisted that Islam requires complete submission to the will Allah, reason is impudent and blasphemous. Even the most fundamental logical analysis of the Qu'ran is prohibited it is unquestioned obedience to the Allah.
The Mu'tazilites were eliminated there is no longer an argument with the Ash'arites. In Islam the debate was blocked not because one argument proved more influential than the other, but because Ash'arites used its clout to silence Mu'tazilites.
Avicenna and Averroes are the great intellectuals who should be seen today by the people that need to be emulated not Ghazali. The heart-rending part is not many have probably heard of them and those who matter judge them heretics. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, self-assuredly insisted that “the science that the Qur’an brings is all science.” This extended to all forms of knowledge.
The war between the Ash'ari school of Islam and the Mu'tazila school was about Koran, the former claimed it was uncreated, the latter held that it was created. Ash'ari school of Islam won as "The Incoherence of the Philosophers" was followed. "The Incoherence of the Philosophers" by Ghazali created the bifurcation in Islam between faith and reason. Allah becomes a will. Occasionalism reigns, which means that Allah becomes the direct cause of the whole thing. There can be no natural law as it implies that humans can reason independently from the Koran. There can be no science as Allah makes things work through intermediary causes. The reason things work is because 'it is the will of Allah.' The reason for a moral law is that it is the will of Allah.
From 9th through the 11th centuries, A.D./C.E. the academic confusion tore through the Islamic world. Islamic philosophers whose rational tools derived from Greek philosophy were on one side whilst on the other were of those who insisted that the Koran was everlasting, and must be purely accepted. The act of inquiring was blasphemous and a capital crime. Though Hellenistic academic viewpoint was supported by some Caliphs, the squabble was ultimately won by the those who believe in literal meaning. Reason lost, and the results are glaringly still obvious.
When the Muslims conquered Persia, according to the great Muslim historian, Ibn Khaldun, the Caliph ordered that the enormous size of captured books and scientific papers should be destroyed because, “if what they contain is right guidance, God has given us better guidance. If it is error, God has protected us against it”; although a mythical account of the destruction of the great library of Alexandria: also refers to Omar “These books either contain what is in the Qur’an or something else. In either case, they are superfluous.” Taliban on the same lines ordered the destruction of all books in Afghanistan. Taliban are not a new product, it is a mindset. They have to drastically change; Reilly writes in this book: “Those eager to make a new beginning must accept beforehand that the traditional mind will lead them to nowhere. A new Muslim mind is the minimum to start with. Without reactivating our brains we would even fall short of realising in full the nature and extent of our malaise.”
All these following names are heretics of Islam, though adopted sons of the West, all these are Malala's of Islam. Ibn al-Haytham, Avicenna, al-Kindi, and other luminous Muslim writers of the past were revered in the West than in Islam. In 1195, one hundred books by Averroes were publicly burned in Cordoba, he had a far greater impact on Europe than on Muslims. In fact, it was the Europeans who conserved his books not Muslims. Mutazilite thought today is actually known by what was written against it, since everything for it was eradicated. Present day Muslims try to claim the credit of Golden age, but forget the icons who were all considered heretics; it is akin to a future where 'Malala or Abdus Salam' are given the credit of great scientists and pacemakers of Islam though contemporary Islamists made best effort to kill them, something similar happened to the great thinkers of the golden age.
Saudi Shura Council says about these philosophers : "They (the authors mentioned above and others of similar stature) are outside our cultural mainstream and we treated them as if they were foreign elements. Therefore we don't deserve to take pride in them since we rejected them and fought their ideas."
The book refers to Bassam Tibi prediction which is worrying : “If that Islamic medieval rationalism that recognised the universality of knowledge continues to be declared a heresy … then Muslims in the twenty-first century will continue to be unsuccessful in embarking on modernity.”